The Austrian monk Gregor Mendel discovers the fundamental laws of heredity by conducting systematic hybridization experiments with bean and pea plants.
The Swiss pathologist Friedrich Miescher isolates DNA from white blood cells' nuclei. He termed it "nuclein".
Oscar Hertwig, Eduard Strasburger, Albrecht von Kölliker and August Weismann identify independently of each other the cell nucleus as the origin of heredity.
Theodor Boveri and Walter Sutton propose that chromosomes bear hereditary factors in accordance with Mendelian laws.
The Danish biologist Wilhelm Johannsen uses the name "gene" for the first time to characterize the heredity transmission of a certain feature.
Thomas Hunt Morgan discovers the position of different genes on the chromosomes for the fruitfly Drosophila.
Oswald T. Avery, Colin M. MacLeod and Maclyn McCarty prove that DNA is the carrier of hereditary information.
Erwin Chargaff discovers that four building blocks of DNA, the bases, are aligned in a certain relationship with each other. He thus creates the prerequisites for working out the DNA double-helix model.
Rosalind Franklin successfully takes the first x-ray structure pictures of DNA crystals. Her excellent pictures are the basis for the DNA double-helix model of Watson and Crick.
James Watson and Francis Crick describe the double-helix structure of DNA.
Heinrich Mathaei and Severo Ochoa decipher the genetic code: each of the 20 amino acids is defined by three letters of DNA "bases".
Walter Gilbert, Allan Maxam and Frederick Sanger develop an effective method for DNA sequencing.
Revolution in molecular biology, Kary Mullins develops a process to amplify DNA in the laboratory: the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR).
The first gene responsible for a hereditary disease (amyotrophia) is discovered.
In the US and in Japan the decision is made to sequence the human genome.
Start of the public international Human Genome Project (HPG) aiming the deciphering of the entire human genome untill 2005
Craig Venter founds the private research institute TIGR („The Institute of Genomic Research“).
The genome of a bacterium (Haemophilus influenza) is completely sequenced.
With the German Human Genome Project (DHGP),
The first genome of a complex organism, bakers' yeast, is sequenced.
The clone sheep Dolly is born, the first mammalian cloned from the genome of an adult animal. 2003, it had to be euthanized due to a virus infection.
The genome of the first multiple-cell organism, the nematode (threadworm) Caenorhabditis elegans, is sequenced.
Nyren and Mostafa Ronaghi from
The sequence of chromosome 22 is completed. It is he first human chromosome sequenced.
Craig Venter and Francis Collins announce the complete sequence of the human genome.
The genome of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster is sequenced.
It is now estimated that humans have approximately 30,000 genes. Scientists had expected considerably more genes in human DNA.
HUGO and Craig Venter finish mapping the human genome sequence.
of the National Genome Research Network (NGFN) in
The Genome of the mouse is completely sequenced.
The human genome is considered to be completely sequenced and the human genome project is officially completed.
Start of the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE)
The genome of the chimpanzee is sequenced. The identicalness with the human genome is about 96 percent.
Start of NGFN-Plus and NGFN-Transfer
Start of the 1000 Genomes Project
“Next-Generation Sequencing “platforms cause dramatic price drop in sequencing costs
The International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) is launched; tumors in 50 different cancer types are comprehensively analyzed at its molecular level
Three German projects are joining in the International Cancer Genome Consortium: systematic analysis of childhood brain tumors, prostate cancer and malignant lymphomas
1000 Genomes Project Consortium publishes pilot paper in Nature
ENCODE Project results were published in Nature, Science and other journals, covering more than 4 million regulatory regions in the human genome